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非谓语动词口诀整理版 什么叫非谓语动词

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非谓语动词口诀整理版 什么叫非谓语动词

谁有非谓语动词的语法,需要整理过,有总结性的。

高考经常考的相关知识点

不定式

  1. “to” 是不定式符号还是介词,下列短语中的to 都是介词。

  agree to object to close to , come to , lead to , refer to ,

  equal to , familiar to , point to , thank to , devote to , next to , belong to , be used to , look forward to

  2. 带to 还是不带to

  I have no choice but to give in

  I cannot do anything but give in

  I saw him enter the classroom .

  ( 但是: He was seen to enter the classroom .)

  3. 动词不定式逻辑主语是由for 作为标记的。但是有时用of .

  区别:当使用for时,句中形容词修饰的是不定式;而用of时,句中形容词修饰逻辑主语。

  It’s necessary for you to study hard .(necessary 修饰 to study hard,表示学习努力是有必要的)

  It’s foolish of him to do it .(foolish 修饰逻辑主语him)

  与of 连用的形容词有:

  good, kind , nice , wise ,clever , foolish , right , wrong , careful , careless , polite , …

  与for连用的通常是一些表示可能性、难易程度、必要性等含义的形容词:

  possible,impossible,easy,hard,difficult,necessary,…

  4.后接不定式作宾语的动词有:

  want , hope , wish , like , begin , try , need , forget , agree , know , promise , teach , refuse , help , arrange , dare , decide , determine , fail , manage , offer , prepare , continue , ask , mean , choose , expect etc.

  需要宾语补足语的动词不能用动词不定式直接做介词的宾语,而要用it做形式宾语。例如:通常不说We think to obey the laws is important . 而说We think it important to obey the laws .

  5. 不定式作宾语补足语时省略to的情况:若不定式前的谓语动词是使役动词make,let,have(表示“让、使”)、感官动词see,watch,look at,observe, notice,hear,listen to, feel时,不定式符号to可以省略。这些动词亦可总结为口诀:“三使五看两听一感觉”。例如:

  Let's (to)go!走吧!

  He saw the thief (to)steal a lady’s cellphone.

  注:改为被动句时要把to还原,例如:

  The thief was seen to steal a lady’s cellphone.

  6.不定式的省略。下列短语中,如果意义明确,常常省略到to 。

  want to , wish to ,hope to , like to , hate to , plan to , try to , love to , have to , ought to , need to , used to , be able to

  7.不定式作定语,应注意两种关系:

  1)动宾关系:

  He has a lot of meeting to attend .

  Please lend me something to write with .

  He is looking for a room to live

  He is looking for a room to live in .

  He has no money and no place

  to live ( in ) .

  I think the best way to travel ( by ) is on foot .

  There is no time to think ( about ) .

  2)主谓关系:

  She is always the last ( person) to speak at the meeting .

  ----I’m going to the post office , for I have a letter to post . ( 逻辑主语是I )

  -------Thank you. But I have no letters to be posted now ( 逻辑主语不是I )

  7.不定式作状语,可以有以下几种意义:

  1) 原因

  He is lucky to get here on time .

  这种结构中常用的形容词有:

  happy , glad , delighted , pleased , sorry , eager , anxious . lucky , fortunate , proud , angry surprised , frightened , disappointed , ready , clever , foolish , worthy

  2) 目的

  He came to help me with my maths .

  3) 结果

  I hurried to get there only to find him out .

  The book is too hard for the boy to read .

  He is old enough to go to school .

  8 . 不定式作补足语

  I saw him play in the street just now .

  能跟不带to 的不定式作补足语的动词有:

  see , feel , hear , listen to , look at , watch , let , have make, observe, notice

  注: 当这些词为被动式时,不定式要带to , 如:

  He was seen to play in the street just now.

动名词

  1.There’s no telling what will happen .

  =It’s impossible to tell what will happen .

  = No one can tell what will happen .

  2.It’s no use talking with him .

  It’s no good speaking to them like that .

  3.There’s some difficulty ( in ) doing …

  在此句型中,difficulty 可以由以下单词替换:

  trouble , problem , fun , pleasure , a good time , a hard time

注意以下几个问题:

  1.下列动词后跟不定式与跟动名词作宾语意义有区别,

  forget to do … 忘记要做某事

  forget doing… 忘记做过了某事

  remember to do…记住要做某事

  remember doing …记着曾做过某事

  mean to do … 打算要做某事

  mean doing … 意味着做了某事

  regret to do …(do指代有限的几个词,如say、tell) 很抱歉要告诉你…

  regret doing … 后悔做过某事

  can’t help to do…不能帮助做某事

  can’t help doing … 情不自禁做某事

  try to do … 尽力去做某事

  try doing 试着做某事

  learn to do … 学着去做某事

  learn doing … 学会做某事

  stop to do … 停下来去做(另一件事)

  stop doing … 停止做某事

  go on to do … 接着做(另外一件事)

  go on doing … 继续做某事

  used to do … 过去做某事

  be used to doing … 习惯做某事

  2.动名词作定语与现在分词作定语意义有区别

  动名词作定语表达 n+ for doing 的含义

  现在分词作定语表达 n+which(who) be doing的含义

  如:a sleeping car = a car for sleeping

  a running horse = a horse which is running

  前者是动名词 , 后者是现在分词

  又如: drinking water , walking stick running water , sleeping boy

  3. 动名词的逻辑主语:

  动名词的逻辑主语为代词或名词的所有格形式。

  例如:His coming made us very happy .

  4.动名词的语态和时态

  5. 动名词主动形式表被动的情况:

  need doing , want doing , require doing

  例如: This room needs painting . 这个房间需要粉刷。

  6.只能跟动名词作宾语的动词:

  admit , avoid , advise , consider , delay , deny , enjoy , escape , excuse , fancy , finish , complete , forbid , imagine , mind , miss , permit . practise , require , suggest , risk , keep, take to , look forward to , get down to , feel like , can’t help , can’t stand , be used to ,insist on , succeed in , set about, give up , include ,

分词

  1 The story is interesting . I’m interested in it .

  这个故事有兴趣,我对这个故事感兴趣。

  2 . This is a moving film .

  这是一部动人的电影。

  3. The secretary worked late into the night , preparing a long speech for the president .

  秘书工作到深夜,为主席准备一篇长篇演讲稿。

  4. Given more time , I’ll do it well .

  如果给我多一点时间,我会做的更好。

  When he passed the back of the street , he saw the thief stealing some money from the bank .

  当他后街时,看到小偷正从银行偷钱。

应注意的几个问题:

  1.现在分词与过去分词的区别

  Do you know the woman talking to Tom ?

  = Do you know the woman who is talking to Tom ?

  The soldier wounded in the war has become a doctor.

  = The soldier who was wounded in the war has become a doctor.

  China is a developing country and America is a developed country.

  2.分词作表语

  The news sounds encouraging .

  They got very excited .

  1)现在分词与过去分词作表语的区别:

  The news is interesting . (表示主语的性质特征)

  He is interested in the news . (表示主语的心理状态)

  doing 作表语,主语与表语是主谓关系 ;done 作表语,主语与表语是动宾关系。

  2)表语与被动式的区别:

  The blackboard was broken by Xiao Ming .(强调动作)

  The blackboard is broken . You’d better have it repaired.(强调状态)

  3)常作表语的过去分词:

  amused , injured , covered , known , dressed , lost , broken , gone , delighted, excited , pleased , satisfied , married , worried , surprised , interested , burnt , shut , crowded , wounded , drank , done

  3.现在分词、动名词 现在进行时的区别

  The situation in our country is encouraging . (表语)

  The situation in our country is encouraging the people . ( 现在进行时)

  My job is looking after the little baby . (动名词)

  能回答how-question 的是现在分词,能回答what-question 的动名词,即不能回答how-question 也不能回答what-question 的是现在进行时。

  例如: How is the situation in our country ? It is encouraging .

  What is your job ? My job is looking after the little baby .

  4.注意的四种结构:

  have something to do 有某事要做

  have something done 使某事被做

  have somebody do something 使某人做某事

  have something doing 让某事一直做着

  5. 需要跟反身代词作宾语的动词:

  seat , prepare , hide , dress

  如:I seated myself on the chair .

  I was seated on the chair .

  6.分词做状语与不定式的区别:

  分词做状语表示时间、原因、让步、条件、方式、伴随等;而不定式表示目的和结果。

  Having finished the homework , I went home . ( 时间)

  Being a Party member , I should work hard . (原因)

  Given more time ,I can do my work better . ( 条件 )

  He ran out of the classroom ,shouting at the boy. ( 伴随)

  To get more knowledge , we must work harder and harder . ( 目的 )

  He is old enough to join the army . ( 结果)

  7.分词、动名词和不定式作定语的区别

  a running horse 现在分词 = a horse that is running

  a fallen leaf 过去分词 = a leaf that has already fallen

  a walking stick 动名词 = a stick for walking

  something to do 不定式 = something that I should do

  8.不定式被动式、分词的被动式和过去分词的区别:

  I have a problem to be discussed at the meeting . ( 将来)

  The building being built on the river is the Science Museum . (正在进行)

  The building completed three years ago is now in bad conditions . ( 过去)

  9.分词做状语需要注意的一个问题:

  分词与句子主语的逻辑关系

  Seeing from the hill , the city looks beautiful .( 错误 )

  Seen from the hill , the city looks beautiful . ( 正确)

  Seeing 与the city 不是主谓关系;seen 与city 是动宾关系

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TAG: 动词