知识大全

知识大全

英语国家文化小知识 英语文化知识

ANTONIA

目录

英语国家文化小知识 英语文化知识

英语国家文化知识!

英语中常见的肢体语言 to hold one's head high 昂首挺胸(表示趾高气扬) to shake one's fist 挥动拳头(表示威胁) to shake one's head摇头(表示不知道) to show a V sign 这一手势是祝愿胜利或庆祝胜利之意。 to wink at a person 向某人眨眼睛 to shrug one's shoulders 耸耸肩膀(表示冷淡或怀疑) to make a face 面部露出厌恶的表情 to keep(or have) one's fingers crossed 把中指叠在食指上交叉着,作十字状。这是暗中希望上帝保佑自己正在做的事成功。 to crook a finger 朝某人弯曲食指,是招人过来的意思 更有趣的是英美人用大拇指(thumb)做出许多不同的表示。

英语文化知识

浅谈英语文化知识渗透于英语教学

内容摘要

语言是文化的载体,是文化的主要表现形式。它是随着民族的发展而发展的,是社会民族文化的一个组成部分。不同民族有着不同的文化、历史、风俗习惯和风土人情等,各民族的文化和社会风俗又都在该民族的语言中表现出来。语言离不开文化,文化依靠语言,英语教学是语言教学,当然离不开文化教育。随着我国对外交往与民族接触的日益迫切的需要,英语教学要重视交际能力的培养和随之而来的要求对所属文化有所了解的呼声越来越高。在英语教学中,教师应努力培养学生的文化习得意识,使文化规范的教学与语言技能的培养同步进行。

关键词 语言 文化 文化差异 文化意识

在美国有这样一个尽人皆知的句子:"When you're down, you are not necessarily out."但是许多English learners却对其含义不甚了了。原因是不了解这句话的文化背景。这原是一句拳击术语,在拳击比赛中拳击手若被对方击倒,裁判数到10还不能起来则被判输。但在很多情况下不等裁判数到10,倒地的拳击手便能爬起来再战。因此,这句话的表层意思是:当你被人击倒,并不意味着输了这场比赛。其寓意为:当你遇到挫折,并不一定丧失了成功的机会。

由此我们可以得到启示:在英语教学中要注重语言和文化的关系,应提高对中西文化差异的敏感性和适应性,应树立文化意识并注重文化知识的传授。

?一、 语言和文化

语言和文化是密不可分的。语言不仅仅是一套符号系统,人们的言语表现形式更要受语言赖以存在的社会/社团(community)的习俗,生活方式,行为方式,价值观念,思维方式,宗教信仰,民族心理和性格等的制约和影响。长期以来,在英语教学中语言和文化的这种关系一直未得到足够的重视。在教学实践中,似乎认为只要进行听,说,读,写的训练,掌握了语音,词汇和语法规则就能理解英语和用英语进行交际。而实际上由于不了解语言的文化背景,不了解中西文化的差异,在英语学习和用英语进行交际中屡屡出现歧义误解频繁,语用失误迭出的现象。如:用How much money can you earn a month?来表示对外国人的关心,殊不知这是一句冒犯的问话,侵犯了别人隐私(privacy),会激起对方的反感。中国人以谦逊为美德,如当外国人称赞中国人某一方面的特长时,中国人通常会用You are overpraising me ("过奖")来应酬,这往往会让说话者感到你在怀疑他的判断力;抑或是用"Where? Where?"来回答,弄得外国人莫名其妙,不知所云。美国社会学家G.R.Tucker 和W.E.Lambet对于外语教学中只教语言不教文化有这样的看法:"我们相信,任何这类企图都会使学生失去兴趣,使他们不仅不想学习语言符号本身,而且也不想了解使用这一符号系统的民族。相反,帮助学生在学习语言时提高对文化的敏感性,就可以利用他们发自内心的想了解其他民族的兴趣和动力......,从而提供了学习该民族的语言的基础"。

二、中西文化的偶合现象与文化差异

不同民族的文化有可能存在某些相同或相似的地方,这被称为文化的偶合现象。这主要是由于不同的民族在与大自然作斗争的过程中会有相同或相似的生活体验和经历。这种相似性必然会反映到语言中来。因而在英语和汉语中,我们不难发现许多相同或相似的表达。例如:"披着羊皮的狼",英语为wolf in sheep's clothing;"同舟共济" ,英语为in the same boat;"破土动工",英语为break earth;"三思而后行",英语为 think twice before you act;"蓝图",英语为blue print,等等,这样的偶合现象不胜枚举。文化的这种偶合现象,可以促进English learners在目的语(target language)学习中的"正迁移"(positive transfer)。

但是,不同的民族所处的地理环境和历史环境不同,因而对不同的事物和经历有着不同的编码(code),分类;不同的民族因不同的宗教信仰,也导致了他们独特的笃信,崇尚和忌讳心态;不同的民族因其发展的特殊历史过程也产生了本民族自己的历史典故,传说轶事。如:汉语中的"龙","生死轮回","八卦","阴阳","气功"等,对不了解中国文化的外国人来说必然是云里雾里,不知何物。同样,当我们看到英语中He is a wolf这个句子时,还以为是"这个人很凶",实为"他是个好色之徒"。中西两种文化的差异还可以从动物的"文化附加义"的差异窥见一斑。 对于狮子的勇猛(brave),绵羊的温顺(gentle),狐狸的狡猾(sly),乌龟的迟缓(slow),猪的贪婪(greedy),英语和汉语的文化附加义基本相同。但在老鼠,骡子和猫头鹰的习性上,英语和汉语的文化附加义则大相径庭。在汉语中有"贼眉鼠目","鼠目寸光"等成语,用以形容鬼鬼祟祟和目光短浅。而老鼠在英语俚语中可指女人,怕羞的人。更由于迪斯尼先生创造了Mickey Mouse这个尤物,从而使得老鼠的形象大放异彩,成为千家万户所喜爱的动物,尤其在儿童心目中,更是机智,智慧的象征。至于骡子,在汉语中,"寿命长,体力大"是它的特征。而英语中骡子是"顽固(stubborn)"的代名词。汉语中人们用猫头鹰象征不祥之兆,如"猫头鹰进宅,无事不来",而英语中的猫头鹰则是智慧之鸟。

此外,中西文化的差异还有很多,如熟人,朋友间见面打招呼时的差异(中国人见面多问"你吃了没有?""你到哪里去?";而外国人则说"Hello");人们接受礼物时表达自己态度的差异(一般中国人不会当着送礼物人的面看礼物;而外国人往往会当面撤开礼物并高兴地向人家连声称谢"Thank you. I really appreciate it.");运用体态语的差异(如:中国人召唤他人走近时常用手心向下,手指向内连续弯曲的手势,这种手势在英语中是在使唤小动物走近时用的;召唤他人走近外国人使用四指弯曲食指向内勾动的手势,而这种手势在汉语中则是极富挑衅性的)。

三、 树立文化意识,注重文化知识的传授

在中学英语教学中,应树立文化意识,应在传授语言的同时同步传授文化知识。这样做的好处是:文化知识加深了学生对语言的了解,语言则因赋予了文化内涵而更易于理解和掌握。语言教学和文化教学同步可以在传授语音,词汇,语法等语言知识时进行。如:freeze这个词的基本含义是"冰冻""结冰"。而在一个私人拥有枪支的美国社会中,一位留学生因听不懂美国人的口语Freeze!("站住""不许动")而被枪杀。在美国社会中,Freeze!却是人人皆知的日常用语。假如这位留学生有这点文化知识就不至于付出生命的代价。又如:教词汇professional时,告诉学生He is a professional和She is a professional可能会引起天壤之别的联想意义:He is perhaps a boxer.和She is likely a prostitute. 这是由英美的文化所触发的定向思维。

除了语言本身所承载的文化涵义外,西方国家的风俗习惯,人们的生活方式,宗教信仰,思维方式等等都有着深厚的文化背景和底蕴。因此,在英语教学中还要适时地向学生介绍文化背景知识。如:在中国称中年以上的人为"老",是尊敬的表示,可在西方,"老"却意味着衰朽残年,去日无多,因此西方人都忌讳"老",都不服"老"。有位导游讲过这样一件事:在一次带队旅游中,我们的这位导游看到一位美国老太在艰难地爬山时,便上前去搀扶她,却遭到了老人的拒绝。为什么会发生这种事呢?因为在美国这样一个老人普遍得不到尊重的社会里,老人们养成了不服老,坚持独立的习惯。所以美国的老人都不喜欢别人称其为老人(elderly people),在美国都用"年长的公民"(senior citizens)这一委婉语来指代老人。

在英语教学中,还可以将日常生活交往中的中西文化差异进行总结归纳,这对学生进行跨文化交际能力的提高能起到积极的促进作用。如可将中国人与英语国家人士初交时谈话的禁忌归纳为四个词:I, WARM, where, meal。I代表income;第二个词中W代表 weight ,A代表age, R 代表religion, M代表 marriage。由此而引出"七不问":不问对方收入,不问体重,不问年龄,不问宗教信仰,不问婚姻状况,不问"去哪儿",不问"吃了吗"。这样可使学生对与英语国家人士交谈的禁忌有更清楚的了解。

利用多种渠道、多种手段,吸收和体验异国文化。可以收集一些英语国家的物品和图片,让学生了解外国艺术、历史和风土人情;运用英语电影、电视、幻灯、录像等资料给学生直观的感受,使学生对英语的实际使用耳濡目染。向学生推荐阅读体现外国文化的简易读本,以增加对英语文化的了解;邀请中外"英语通"作中外文化差异方面的专题报告;组织英语角,英语晚会等,创设形式多样的语言环境,加深对文化知识的实际运用。

总之,在英语教学中不能只单纯注意语言教学,而必须加强语言的文化导入,重视语言文化差异及对语言的影响。只有这样,才能在实际中正确运用语言。

英语国家的文化

1.D.热狗源自于德国,在德国,热狗叫做法兰克福香肠,这个名称起源于德国的一个城市--法兰克福,这种香肠最初是在此城市制造的。后来传到美国,美国人称之为"(腊肠狗香肠)"因为腊肠狗长的长长的而且又是源自德国.在美国卖腊肠狗香肠的小贩,前胸背着一个热水箱,里面装了保温的香肠,叫卖"getyourdachshundsausage!"人们常用面包夹着香肠吃.到了西元1906年,一个报社漫画家将他看到的这种香肠画成漫画刊登在报纸上,不过他画的是一个面包,里面夹了一只腊肠狗,而不是香肠,因为他不会拼dachshund这个字,就在漫画下面写"getyour(‘hotdogs’)!"之后,这个名称就被沿用了.hotdogs--热狗

2.B.三明治是西方一种基本食品,以两片面包夹几片肉和奶酪、各种调料而成, 吃法简便,其历史几乎与面包一样古老,但命名却是13世纪的事情。 三明治本是英国东南部一个不大出名的小镇,镇上有位桑威奇伯爵约翰.蒙 塔古,他吃喝玩乐,嗜赌如命,整日废寝忘食地玩桥牌。跟差很难服侍他的 饮食,干脆将肉、蛋、菜夹在面包片中,让他拿在手上边赌边吃。蒙塔古伯 爵大喜,顺口便将这种快餐叫作“三明治”,饿了就喊:“拿三明治来!” 其他赌客也学伯爵的样子,省去进餐的工夫,保证赌事不间断地进行。随后 三明治名扬英伦三岛,传遍欧洲大陆。从此,夹馅面包片的食品,都被叫做 “三明治”。

英语的文化常识?

Alabama(阿拉巴马):来源于巧克陶印第安语,意思是 "thicket-clearers" 或者 "vegetation-gatherers","拓荒者"或者"打草人"。

Alaska(阿拉斯加): 来源于阿留申语,意思是"great land"或"that which the seas breaks against","伟大的土地"或"分割海的地方"。

Arizona(亚利桑那):来源于印第安语"Arimnac",意思是"hule spring","小泉水"。

Arkansas(阿肯色):来源于印第安语,意思是"a breeze near the ground","靠近地面的微风"。

Caifornia(加利福尼亚):来源于法语"Califerne",是一部11世纪法国史诗中所想象的地方。

Colorado(科罗拉多):来源于西班牙语,意思是"ruddy"或"red","红色的"。

Conneticut(康涅狄格):来源于印第安语,意思是"beside the long tidal river", "在长长的潮河旁"。

Delaware(德拉华): 纪念托马斯·魏斯特爵士"Sir Thomas West, Lord De La Warr",德拉华河和德拉华湾也以此命名。

Frorida(佛罗里达):来源于西班牙语,意思是"feast flowers(Easter)","花的节日",即复活节。

GEORGIA(乔治亚): 纪念英国的乔治二世皇帝。In honor of George II of England.

HAWAII(夏威夷):来源不确定。这个群岛可能是以其发现者夏威夷·罗亚(Hawaii Loa) 命名,也可能以传统的波利尼西亚人的家乡Hawaii or Hawaiki命名。

IDAHO(爱达荷):来源于印第安语,意思是:"gem of the mountains", "山中的宝石";另一种说法的意思是"Good morning""早上好"。

ILLINOIS(伊利诺):来源于印第安语加上法语后缀,意思是"tribe of superior men", "贵人的土地"。

INDIANA(印第安纳):来源于印第安语,意思是:"land of Indians","印第安人的土地"。

IOWA(依阿华):来源于印第安语,意思是"the beatiful land","这块美丽的地方",另一种说法是"the sleepy ones","爱睡觉的人们"。

KANSAS(堪萨斯):来源于苏族印第安语,意思是"people of the south wind", "南风的人们"。

KENTUCKY(肯塔基):来源于易洛魁印第安语"Ken-tah-ten",意思是"land of tomorrow" or "the dark or bolldy ground","希望的土地",或"黑色的沃土"。

LOUISIANA(路易斯安那):纪念法国路易十四世皇帝,"In honor of Louis XIV fo France".

MAINE(缅因):纪念英国查理一世皇后海丽塔·玛丽亚,"Henrietta Maria, Queen fo Charles I of England"据说她拥有过法国的缅因省,"The province of Mayne in France"

MARYLAND (马里兰):纪念英国查理一世皇后海丽塔·玛丽"In honor of Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I of England". MASSACHUSETTS(麻萨诸塞):来源于印第安语,意思是"great mountain place","伟大的山地"。

MICHIGAN(密执安):来源于印第安语,意思是"great lake"or"big water","大湖"。

MINNESOTA(明尼苏达):来源于达科他印第安语,意思是"sky-tinted water","天色的水域"。

MISSISSIPPI(密西西比):来源于印第安语,意思是"father of waters","水之父"。

MISSOURI(密苏里):来源于印第安语, 意思是"town of the Large canoes","大独木舟之乡"。

MONTANA(蒙大拿):由J.M.阿西从拉丁词典中选的词,是拉丁化的西班牙语,意思不详。

NEBRASKA(内布拉斯加):来源于澳托印第安语,意思是"flat water","平川之水"。

NEVADA(内华达):来源于西班牙语,意思是"snow-capped","雪山"。

NEW HAMPSHIRE(新罕布什尔):来源于英国的罕布什尔郡,"Hampshire"。

NEW JERSEY(新泽西):来源于海峡的泽西岛,"the Channel Isle of Jersey"。

NEW MEXICO(新墨西哥):来源于墨西哥,"the country of Mexico"。

NEW YORK(纽约):纪念英国的约克公爵,"In honor of the English Duke of York"。

NORTH CAROLINA(北卡罗来纳):纪念英国的查理一世,"In honor of Charles I of England".

SOUTH CAROLINA(南卡罗来纳):纪念英国的查理一世皇帝,"In honor of Charles I of England"。

NORTH DAKOTA(北达科他):来源于达科他印第安语,意思是"allies"or"leagued","同盟"或"联盟"。

OHIO(俄亥俄):来源于印第安语,意思是"great river","大河"。

OKLAHOMA(俄克拉荷马):来源于巧克陶印第安语,意思是"red people","红种人"。

OREGON(俄勒冈):来源不明。人们一般认为这个名字第一次在1778年由乔那森·卡佛(Jonathan Carver)使用,取自于英国军官罗伯特·罗杰斯(Robert Rogers)之书。

PENNSYLVANIA(宾夕法尼亚):纪念维廉·宾爵士"Sir William Penn”,意思是"penn’s Woodland", "宾的树林"。

RHODE ISLAND(罗德岛):来源于希腊的罗德岛,"the Greek Island of Rhodes"。

SOUTH DAKOTA(南达科他):同北达科他。

TENNESSEE(田纳西)来源于柴罗基印第安语,意思是:"the vines of the big bend", "大弯的蔓藤"。

TEXAS(德克萨斯):来源于印第安语,意思是"friends","朋友"。

UTAH(犹他):来源于犹特印第安语,意思是"people of the mountains", "山里人"。

VERMONT(佛蒙特):来源于法语"vert mont",意思是"green mountain","绿山"。

VIRGINIA(佛吉尼亚):纪念伊丽莎白一世英国圣洁女皇,"In honor of Elizabeth I,’Virgin Queen’ of England"。 ]

WEST VIRGINIA(西佛吉尼亚):同佛吉尼亚。

WASHINGTON(华盛顿):纪念乔治·华盛顿,"In honor of George Washington"。

WISCONSIN(威斯康辛):法语化的印第安语,意思不详。

WYOMING(怀俄明):德拉华印第安语,意思是"mountains and valleys alternating", "起伏的山谷"。

英语文化小知识

http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/64172578.html

http://hi.baidu.com/simple0423/blog/item/9ff86a500a95c45b1138c222.html

or it to be made up entirely from within the continent, the Americans among others had argued that Africa does not have enough trained soldiers to make up a credible and effective force. Here's David Bamford.

Mr. Konare's comments, following talks with President Omar al-Bashir in Sudan, are likely to raise eyebrows on the UN Security Council, which has been battling with the Sudanese leader for months on a compromise resolution that would specifically allow non-African peacekeepers to join the revamped Darfur force. There is already an African Union force in Darfur, but it's poorly trained, ill-equipped and only 7,000 in number. The UN is talking about something much more robust, able to stand up to the Janjaweed and rebel militias in Darfur.

A foreign man who had been kidnapped in the oil producing region of southern Nigeria has died shortly after being set free. Officials said the man was released by the hostage takers near the town of Yenagoa.

Election observers in Sierra Leone have said Saturday's presidential and parliamentary elections were free, fair and credible. They said the ballot went smoothly and the presence of police had given confidence to voters. The European Union's Chief Election Observer Marie-Anne Isler Beguin said she was satisfied with how the election was conducted. "Of course we have a good view now, a good picture of what happened yesterday and we at this moment can be satisfied of the global participation and the global organization."

It was Sierra Leone's first election since the departure of the United Nations' peacekeepers who had steered its recovery from years of civil war.

The Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki has called on leaders of the main parliamentary factions to hold talks within the next two days to try to resolve a political crisis. Two factions have recently withdrawn from the national unity cabinet saying it had failed to end sectarianism. The cabinet is now narrowly based on Shiite Muslim religious parties and Kurdish groups and it has almost no Sunni Arab members.

United Nations Children's Fund is making an urgent appeal for women in Iraq to breastfeed their children rather than use infant formula milk. Infant formula needs to be mixed with water and UNICEF says diarrhea caused by water contamination is one of the biggest killers of Iraqi children.

A senior Afghan official says he now expects two South Koreans being held by Taliban militants will be released within the next 24 hours. A Taliban spokesman said on Saturday the two Korean women who are said to be unwell had already been released, but this was not confirmed.

The authorities in Guatemala say they've rescued 46 more children and babies they think may have been taken from their parents for illegal adoption by foreigners. Police say the infants were found at a house in the city of Antigua after neighbors reported seeing foreigners collecting children there every day. Daniel Schweimler reports.

The authority is now investigating whether the children were stolen or their parents were coerced into giving them up. The attorney general's office said that few of the children had the necessary paperwork and the house did not have permission to operate as an adoption center. Last year couples in the United States adopted more than 4,000 infants from Guatemala where it can take half the time and cost considerably less than it does elsewhere.

International diplomats leading the latest talks on the future of Kosovo say the partition of the province which is still technically part of Serbia might be possible if both Serbs and Albanians agree. The comments appeared to mark a change in policy. Until now, the international community had insisted that the province stay as one. Nick Thorpe reports.

The United States, Russia and the European Union have the unenviable task of trying to broker a deal for Kosovo acceptable to all sides after all other efforts have failed. Wolfgang Ischinger, the EU envoy, told reporters that all options were open to resolve the deadlock, which has reined since the aerial bombing campaign by NATO forced the Serb police and army out of the province eight years ago.

A court in China has given a one-year prison sentence and a fine about 130 dollars to a television journalist Zi Beijia who made up a recent report about street vendors in Beijing selling meat buns stuffed with chemicals and cardboard. Mr. Zi's report received wide circulation abroad, embarrassing the government at a time when China is facing international criticism over the quality of some of its exports.

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