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英语中的三大从句 英语三大从句类型总结

LINDSEY

英语中的三大从句 英语三大从句类型总结

英语三大从句是什么

从句是相对于主句而言的,即它是从属于某一个主句,而不能单独作一个句子。在英语中,主要有三大从句,即名词性从句(包括主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句)、形容词性从句(即定语从句)、副词性从句(即状语从句,包括时间、条件、结果、目的、原因、让步、地点、方式等)。 主语从句用作主语,如:: That the earth is round is true. 地球为圆的是真实的。 宾语从句用作宾语。如: Do you know where he lives? 表语从句用作表语,如: My opinion is that you should not go alone. 我的意见是你不应单独前往。 同位语从句用于解释说明前面的名词。如: The fact that the earth is round is true. 地球是圆的的事实是真实的。(that从句用于解释说明the fact) 定语从句相当于一个形容词,用于修饰前面的名词。如: The student who answered the question was John. 回答问题的学生是John. 状语从句相当于一个副词,如: When it rains, I usually go to school by bus. 天下雨时,我通常坐公共汽车上学。(时间状语) If he comes tomorrow, you will see him. 如果他明天来,你就可以看见他。(if 引导的条件状语从句,其结构为:if +状语从句,+主句)。要注意在状语从句中有一个规则是“主将从现”,即主句是将来时,则从句要用一般现在时表示将来。 主句和从句的划分方法是相同的。句子的成分从谓语动词处来划分比较容易。谓语动词前面的部分是主语,后面常接宾语,修饰谓语动词的是状语,修饰主语、宾语的是定语,若谓语是系动词,则系动词后的部分是表语。如: I am a teacher. 其中,I 是主语,am是谓语,a teacher 是表语。 He likes playing football very mucy. 其中,he是主语,likes是谓语,playing football是宾语,very much是状语。 名词从句、定语从句 名词从句 名词从句有四类:宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句。例如: 宾语从句:I don’t know where he will go. 主语从句:Where he will go is unknown. 表语从句:The problem is how we can get so much money. 同位语从句:We all feel sorry about the news that he failed in the game. 下面几点是学习名词从句要加以注意的: 1. whether和if都可以引导宾语从句表达“是否”意,(即引导宾语从句时if和whether 可以互换)但以下几种名词从句要用whether(不用if)引导: (1) 引导主语从句,且在句首时。例:Whether he has won the tennis is not known.(但 It is not known whether/if he has won the tennis). (2) 引导表语从句时。例The problem is whether he can get a job. (3) 引导同位语从句时。例:I have no idea whether he will come. (4) 介词后的whether从句。例:I worry about whether I hurt her feelings. 2. 位于句首引导主语从句的that不可忘。 例如:That he got the first place in the competition surprised all of us. 3. 在“It is suggested/proposed/ordered/a pity/no wonder/necessary/strange/…+ that从句”结构中,that从句谓语有时用(should)do这样的虚拟语气形式。 例如:It is suggested that we(should) improve the relations between us. It is a pity that one(should) stay in one place all one´s life. It is strange that she should have failed to see her own shortcomings(缺点). 4. 在“The reason why…is that…”句式中that不要误为because. 例如:The reason why he didn´t go to school yesterday is that he was ill. 5. 名词从句中that,what用法比较: 引导名词从句的that是连词,在句中无成份,无意义,而what是连接代词,what=the thing(s) that. 例如:It was told in yesterday´s newspaper that what the students had done was praised by the factory. I know that he will study. I know what he will study. That he works hard at his lessons is known to us all. What he works hard at is known to us all. All I ask is that you should tell the truth./He is not what(=the person that)he used to be.他和以前大不相同了。 6. where在名词从句中的使用特点: where在名词从句中有时可以变为“the place where”,有时可以变为“介词+the place where” 形式。例如: 主从:Where(=The place where)she has gone is still unknown. 宾从:Would you please tell me where(=the place where) Mr Smith lives? 表从:Your dictionary remains where(=in/at the place where)you put. 同位从:Have you any idea where(=of the place where) she is spending her holidays? 7. 无论是哪种名词从句都是陈述语序。例如: I know where he lives./Please tell me what her name is. 当一个特殊疑问句本身就是陈述语序(即“主+谓+(宾)”或“主+系+表”结构),将其变为间接引语(即宾语从句)时,无需改变语序。例如: What´s the matter with him? She asked me what was the matter with him. Who looks after your grandfather? He asked me who looked after my grandfather. 名词从句考点分析 1.They want to know ______ do to help us. (NMET) A. what they can B. how they can C. how can they D. what can they 析:此题要选陈述语序项,故应排除C、D。又因how they can do不完整,do后无宾 语,故也应排除,只有A项既是陈述语序,且what they can do完整正确地表达出“他 们能做些什么”这一意思,故答案为A。 2.His teacher ______ he ______ bright and ______ he was worth teaching. A.didn’t think;was;that B.thought;was;whether C.didn’t think;was;× D.thought;wasn´t;× 析:观察题目,可知think后跟有and连接的两个并列宾语从句,这时前一个宾语从句 的引导语that可以省略,但引导后一宾语从句的that不可省略,据此,可排除C、D 两个选项。若选B项,全句意思不通,而选择A项可表达“他的老师认为他不聪明,不 值得教”这一意思,且语法结构无误,故可定A是正确答案。 3.______ is done cannot be undone. A.How B.That C.What D.Where 析:do一般作及物动词使用,从题干看,需选一词作主语(逻辑上是done的宾语)。 而A.How,D.Where均是副词,不能作主语,故应排除。B项that一词只能在定语从句 中作主语,不能在主语从句中作主语,也应排除。只有选what(=the thing that),才 能正确表述“凡是做的不可不做”这一意思。 4.Take care ______ you don´t make mistakes in the coming exam. A.of that B.about that C.for what D.that 析:take care是“注意”、“当心”意,后面可跟that引导的宾语从句来表达“当心 不要…”意思,据此,该题应选D。 5.To his surprise,the umbrella was not ______ he had put. A.which B.where C.the place D.that 析:观察题干,was not后是表语,根据where在表语从句中相当于in/at the place where, 将其置于空白处则可表达“伞不在他当初放的地方”这一意思,而C选项缺少词,不可 选。A、D项皆不合用。 6.______ we can´t get seems better than ______ we have. A.what;what B.what;that C.that;that D.that;what 析:此题显然是要表达“我们得不到的东西似乎比我们得到的东西好。”这一意思,即 “A seems better that B”结构,根据what=the thing(s) that这一特点,将其置 于两空白处正好可以表达出前者比后者好这一意思,故答案为A。 7.______ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A.If B.Whether C.That D.Where 析:此题depends前的主语从句是一个不肯定的内容,在句首表“是否”意时,只能用 Whether,不可用If。故答案为B。 8.______ they are most interested in is ______ they can produce more and better cars. A.That;how B.What;how C.What;what D.That;that 析:is前面是一个主语从句,要表达“他们最感兴趣的(东西)”这一意思,只能选what 填入空白;is是表语从句,显然只有选how才能表达“如何生产更多更好的汽车”,故 答案为B。 9.He made a suggestion that the English test ______ until next Wednesday. A.will be put off B.be put off C.will put off D.put off 析:suggestion,order,adivce等词后的同位语从句谓语要用(should)do的形式,且 该句中test与put off为被动关系,故选B。 10.I don´t think ______ he said something like that is right. A.that B.what C.whether D.when 析:此句think后是一宾语从句,这个宾语从句的主语在is之前,它是一个被动句。 因为he said something like that已经含有主、谓、宾、状等成分,只有选不表意义, 不做成分的that才合适,故选A。 定语从句 一、 定语从句与引导词 定语从句是在复合句中修饰某一名词或代词的从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫做选行词, 而引导定语从句的词叫引导词,有关系代词和关系副词两类。 懂得什么样的先行词后用什么样的引导词是学好定语从句的关键。 1. 关系代词有:that,which,who,whom,whose,在定语从句中作主语、宾语中表语,whose 作定语。代人的有:who,whom,whose,that;代物的有:that,which,whose.例如: The man who helped you is Mr White.(who代人,在定语从句中作主语) That is the person(whom/who/that) you want to see.(whom,who,that代人,在定 语从句中作宾语,可省略) I´m not the fool(that) you thought me to be.(that代人,在定从中作表语) A dictionary is a useful book which(=that) tells us the meaning of words(which 或that代物,在定从中作主语) 2. 关系副词有:when(指时间),where(指地点),why(指原因),在定语从句中作状语。 例如:Would you suggest a time(when) we can have a talk?(when可省略) The house where they live is not very large./This is the reason why he did not came to the meeting. 注意:不是表时间的先行词都用when引导定从,不是表地点的先行词都用where引导定从。例如:We´ll visit the factory which(=that) makes radios. (which或that在定从中作主语,where不可用主语,故不可用) They still remember the happy days(which/that) they spent in Beidaihe. (which或that在定从中作spent的宾语,when不可作宾语,故不可用) 二、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句和主句之间不用逗号分开,修饰主句中的某一个名词或名词词组或代 词;非限制性定语从句常用逗号和主句隔开,可以修饰主句中的某一个词,也可修饰整个句子。非限制性定语从句不能用that引导,引导非限制性定语从句的关系词不能省略。非限制性定语从句例:Li Ping´s father, who works in a factory, is an engineer./He tore up my photo, which made me very angry.(which指代主句内容,因前后两句是因果关系,此时which不可换为as。) He is good at physics, as is known to us all.=As is known to us all, he is good at physics.(as指代主句内容,在as is known/believed, as we all know/believe这类结构中as不可换为which) 三、 只用that引导和不用that引导的场合 1. 只用that引导和不用that引导的场合 1) 当先行词既包括人又包括物时:He talked about the men and the books that attracted him. 2) 指物的先行词被any, every, only, very, all, no等修饰时:These are the very points that interest me./That´s the only watch that I like most. 3) 指物的先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时:The first step that we are to take is very difficult./This is the second card that he gave me. 4) 先行词是指物的不定代词all,little,few,much,及everything,anything,nothing等时:There is still much that can be done about it./Have you got everything that you need? 5) 先行词是who时:Who that have seen him does not like him? 2. 不用that的场合如下: 1)非限制性定语从句中 Last night ,I saw a very good film,which was about the Long March . 2)介词放在关系代词之前时 This is the man from whom I learnt the news 3)句中出现了that,或先行词是that时 I have found that which I was looking for.

英语三大从句如何正确区别?

1. 名词性从句:在句子中起名词性作用,如主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句,同位语从句。

2. 定语从句:在复合句中起定语作用,修饰名词或名词性短语等名词性结构。

3. 状语从句:在复合句中起状语作用,一般由连接词引导,修饰动词、形容词或副词。

英语从句 其作用 其实就相当于一个单词 名词性从句 相当于一个名词 定语从句相当于一个形容词 状语从句相当于一个副词 根据 从句在整个句子中 所起的作用 来判断 是什么从句 如 the man that told me the news that i passed the exam was so kind that i wanted to thank him.

这句话的主语 是the man 谓语是 was so kind 那个人非常好

that told me the news that i passed the exam 这是定语从句 他告诉我 我考试通过了的消息

在这个定语从句中 又包含了 一个 名词性从句 作同位语 即同位语从句that i passed the exam 

that i wanted to thank him这是结果状语从句 我想感谢他

英语 各种从句解析。

叫什么从句 就看该从句充当什么成分

主语从句就是在句中充当主语的从句

what he did made me angry 他的所作所为让我恼火

宾语从句就是在句中充当宾语的从句

He said that he would not go to school tomorrow 他说他明天不去上学

定语从句就是在句中充当宾语的从句

The boy whom i talked to is my cousin 跟我说话的那个男孩儿是我表弟

表语从句就是在句中充当表语的从句

The house is not what it used to be 那所房子 不是它原来的那个样子了

状语从句就是在句中充当状语的从句 有原因 时间 让步等状语从句

原因状语从句

She was late for school because she overslept 因为睡过头了 所以她迟到了

时间状语从句 when I was 5 years old,my parents divorced 当我五岁的时候 父母离异了

让步状语从句

Although I liked the watch very much, I donated it to the children in the rural region

尽管我非常喜欢这只手表 但是我还是把它捐给了山区的孩子

有关英语从句

先你要弄清什么是定语`表语`同位语`主语`宾语`

没有谓语从句

从句是相对于主句而言的,即它是从属于某一个主句,而不能单独作一个句子。在英语中,主要有三大从句,即名词性从句(包括主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句)、形容词性从句(即定语从句)、副词性从句(即状语从句,包括时间、条件、结果、目的、原因、让步、地点、方式等)。

以下是一些基本的从句的语法知识点

各种从句:

I. 定语从句。

1) 先行词是名词。

2) 定语从句跟在名词后。是修饰名词的。

3) 与中文顺序相反。

4) 定语从句的组成是:连词+主+谓+宾。

5) 连词在从句里可以作主语、宾语、状语等。

6) 当先行词的名词表示人时,后面的连词用who+v/(whom)+s+v/whose+N+s+v.

当先行词的名词表示物时,后面的连词用which/that ,whose.

7) 连词前可以有介词。

8) 不许用what

1. All the people who work on a newspaper must be able to work fast.

2. Corn is a useful plant which can be eaten by both people and animals.

3. I have a friend whose cousin is a tennis player.

4. The boy lived in a part of town where there were no schools.

5. During the hurricane, one of the tree branches broke the bed in which

the girl had been sleeping.

II. 名词从句。起名词作用。=名词

1. 主语从句。

1) 在主语位置上。

2) 组成:连词+主语+谓语+宾语

3) 连词不可省

4) 不许用if

When we’ll go to school is still a question.

2. 宾语从句。

1) 在宾语位置上。在动词后。

2) 组成:(连词)+主语+谓语+宾语

3)连词可省

The doctor asked the patient what he had had for lunch.

3. 表语从句。

1) 在表语位置上。在系/be动词后。

2) 组成:连词+主语+谓语+宾语

3)连词不可省

4)不许用if

He lost his key. The reason is that he was too careless.

4. 同位语从句。

1) 在名词后。说明名词的内容。

2) 组成:名词+[连词+主语+谓语+宾语]

3)连词不可省

4) 只用that, when, where, why。不用which.

5) 只有一些词才用。请看Unit17.

The news that our team won the game made us happy.

III. 状语从句。连词+主语+谓语+宾语

1. 时间状语从句。

When I was away, my son looked after the dog.

2. 地点状语从句。

Put the book where it is.

3. 原因状语从句。

He was late, because he didn’t catch the bus.

4. 条件状语从句。

If it’s fine, we’ll go to the park.

5. 让步状语从句。

Although I’m tired, I’m very happy.

6. 目的状语从句。

We got up early so that we could get there on time.

7. 结果状语从句.

I was so frightened that I couldn’t say a word.

TAG: 从句