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部分倒装结构 英语部分倒装的几种情况

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部分倒装结构 英语部分倒装的几种情况

哪些结构放句首用部分倒装、哪些用完全倒装

不完全倒装

一 全部倒装

全部倒装是指将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有:

1. here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。例如:

1) There goes the bell. 铃声渐渐消失了。

2) Then came the chairman. 然后主席就来了

3) Here is your letter. 这是你的信。

2. 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。例如:

1) Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机下面发出了一颗导弹。

2) Ahead sat an old woman.

注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。例如:

1) Here he comes. 他来了。

2) Away they went. 他们走了。

二 部分倒装

部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。

1. 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。例如:

1) Never have I seen such a performance. 我从来没看过这样的表演。

2) Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. 你在哪儿都不会找到这个问题的答案。

3) Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 妈妈直到孩子睡着才离开房间。

注意:当Not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。

注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。例如:

1) I have never seen such a performance.我从来没看过这样的表演。

2) The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.妈妈直到孩子睡着才离开房间。

2. 带有否定意义的词放在句首,语序需要部分倒装。常见的词语有: not , never , seldom , scarcely , barely , little , at no time , not only , not once , under on condition , hardly … when , no sooner …than …等。例如:

1) Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. 他不仅拒收了礼品,还狠狠批评了送礼的人。

2) Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. 她刚要出门时有个学生来找她。

3) No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 她刚要走时一个学生来看她。

注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。例如:

Not only you but also I am fond of music. 我和你都喜欢音乐。

3. 表示"也"、"也不" 的so, neither, nor放在句首时,句子作部分倒装。例如:

1) Tom can speak French. So can Jack. Tom能说法语,我也能。

2) If you won't go, neither will I. 如果你不去,我也不去。

注意: 当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为"的确如此"。例如:

1) Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. Tom让我去踢足球,我去了。

2) ---It's raining hard. ---So it is. ---雨下得很大。 ---的确很大。

4. only放在句首,强调状语(副词,介词短语或状语从句等),全句语序要部分倒装。例如:

Only in this way, can you learn English well.你只有用这种方法才能学好英语。

Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 他被请了三次才来开会。

注意:如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装

Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed. 他只有病得非常严重时才会卧床休息。

三 as, though 引导的倒装句

as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。此时应注意:1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词;2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。例如:

Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 尽管他愿意努力工作,但是他好像从来都不能令他的工作満意。

注意: 让步状语从句中,有though,although时,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用。

四 其他部分倒装

1. so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒装。例如:

So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 他害怕得动都不敢动。

2. 在某些表示祝愿的句型中,例如:

May you all be happy. 望大家开心愉快。

3. 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。例如:

Were I you, I would try it again. 如果我是你,我就再试一次。

什么是部分倒装?结构是怎么样的?发生部分倒装的前提是什么?

由于语法和修辞的原因将助动词提到主语前面的结构称为部分倒装。用于一般疑问句、so…that…结构的so于句首时、not、hardly、never、no sooner…than…、not only…but also…于句首时,等等。

英语中完全倒装的结构,谢谢

所谓完全倒装,就是将谓语动词置于主语前。完全倒装一般具有以下两个条件:①谓语动词是单个(即不带情态动词、助动词或be)的不及物动词,且只限于一般现在时或一般过去时;②主语只能是名词。

一、以here等副词开头引出的完全倒装

在描述情景时,为了使景象更生动,有时把here, there, now, then, out, in, up, down, off, away等方向性副词作为句子开头,句子用完全倒装。此时,①句子主语必须是名词;②谓语动词通常是be, come, go, run, rush, fly, follow, fall等表示位移的不及物动词,且为一般时态;③其中的here, there不是表示地点,而是用以引起对方注意。如:

Here comes the bus. 汽车来了。

There goes the bell. 铃响了。

Here are some advertisements about cars. 这儿是几则有关汽车的广告。

二、以表语或状语开头引出的完全倒装

有时为了强调或者为了使句子平衡或者为了使上下文连接得更加紧密,就将表语和地点状语(多为介词短语)置于句首,谓语动词也常置于主语前,构成完全倒装。如:

Among the people was a man named Brown. 在这些人中有一个叫布朗的人。

On the top of the hill stands an old temple. 这山顶上有一座庙。

三、there be 结构及其变体的完全倒装

There is a tall tree in front of the house. 这房子前面有一棵树。

注:在there be结构中,可以代替be的还有以下动词:live, lie, stand, appear, rise, remain, happen, come, go等。如:

Once there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea. 从前,在海边的一个村子里住着一个老人。

四、直接引语放在句首引起的完全倒装

若直接引语的部分或全部放在句首,并且说话人是名词时,将say或ask置于说话人前,构成完全倒装。如:

“Are you ready?” asked the teacher. “准备好了没有?”老师问道。

“It is unbelievable!”said Alfred Butts. 阿尔弗雷德·布滋说,“这真叫人难以置信!”

部分倒装和全部倒装

全部倒装是将谓语部分全部提前,部分倒装是将谓语的一部分如助动词情态动词等提前

用法详解

一、使用全部倒装的情况

There goes the ambulance.救护车来了。

2.表示地点、方向、时间的副词(here, out, in,up, down, back off, away, now, then等)位于句首时。谓语动词多为表示运动的不及物动词(go, come, leave, move, run, rush, ny, jump等)。如:

Here is a telegram for you.这儿有你一封电报。

Down jumpedthe man from the horse.那人从马上跳下来。

在上述情况中,主语是代词时,则不用倒装。如:

Here you are.给你。

In he came and the meeting began.他进来,会议就开始了。

3.表示地点的介词短语位于句首时。如:

Between the two buildings stands a tall pine.两座楼之间有棵大松树。

4.直接引语的部分或全部位于句首时,点明说话人的部分主谓语要倒装。如:

"Are you listening to English on the radio?" said Mother.

但,引述动词后有间接宾语或状语时,不倒装。如:

5.在某些表示祝愿的句子中。如:

Long live our great country!伟大的祖国万岁!

二、使用部分倒装的情况

1.only修饰的状语(副词、介词短语或状语从句)位于句首时。如:

Only after three operations was he able to walk without sticks.做过三次手术之后,他才能不用拐杖行走。

Only with more practice can you pass the driving test.只有多练习你才能通过驾驶考试。

但only修饰主语时,则不倒装。如:

Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.只有那位女生知道怎样解那道题。

2.含有否定意义的副词(never, seldom, little, few, not, nowhere等)位于句首时。如:

Seldom in all my life have l met such a brave man.我一生很少见过这么勇敢的人。

Never did she care about her own safety, though she was in great danger herself.虽然她处于极大的危险之中,但她根本不顾自己的安全。

3.not until位于句首时。如:

Not until the early years of the 19th century did man know what heat is.直到19世纪初,人们才知道热是何物。

在复合句中,只有主句用倒装,until引导的从句不倒装。如:

Not until he loses his health will he give up drinking.他直到失去健康才会戒酒。

4.在no sooner...than..., hardly/scarccly/barely...when...结构中,前面部分位于句首时,其后的分句要部分倒装(谓语用过去完成时)。如:

Hardly had the baby seenthe dogwhen she cried.那女婴一看到狗就哭了起来。

NO sooner had the interpreter returned home than he was told to go to another country.那位翻译刚踏进国门就又受命要去他国。

5.not only...(but also)...位于句首引导两个分句时,前一个分句中的主谓要采用部分倒装,第二个分句则不倒装。如:

Not only does he teach in school, but hewrites novels.他不但在学校教书,而且还写小说。

Not only did she speak correctly, but also she spoke fluently.她不但说得正确,而且说得流利。

6.so/neither/nor开头的句子,说明前面的内容也适用于后者时,用倒装句“so/neither/nor+be/have/助动词/情态动词+主语”。如:

She hasbeen to Dalian and so have I.她去过大连,我也去过。

John can't speak Japanese, nor can Helen.约翰不会讲日语,海伦也不会。

但同意对方的看法,表示“是的、确实”之意时,用“so+主语+be/have/助动词/情态动词”句式,即主谓不倒装。目前考查这种句式的省份较多。如:

—Maggie had a wonderful time at the pany.

—_______________, and so did I.

A. So she had  B. So had she

C. So she did  D. So did she

(05安徽)

7.as/though引导让步状语从句时,可将谓语部分的形容词/名词/动词等提到句首,采用部分倒装。如果位于句首的是单数可数名词,其前不加冠词。如:

Brave as they were, the danger made them afraid.尽管他们很勇敢,但这样的危险仍使他们感到畏惧。

8.在so/such...that...结构中,so/such及其修饰部分位于句首时,主句要用部分倒装。如:

So beautiful was the girl that she won the championship in the beauty contest.那女孩那么漂亮,她在选美比赛中获得冠军。

Such an instructive speech did he make that all the listeners were moved.他发表的演说那么有教育意义,以至于所有的听众都很感动。

9.在含有were/had/should虚拟条件句中,省去if,把这三个词放在句首时。如:

Were she here now(=If she were here now), she would take good care of her parents.如果她现在在这儿,她就能照顾她的父母了。

Had you attended the graduate ceremony(=If you had attended the graduate ceremony), I should haveseen you.要是你参加了毕业典礼,我就会见到你了。

10.在某些表示祝愿的句子中。如:

May you be happy!祝你幸福!

倒装句的基本结构

倒装分为完全倒装 和半倒装,

1,完全倒装是把主谓完全颠倒,如:On the ground lies a man .原型是A man lies on the gound .

主语a man 谓语lies.

2,部分倒装,就是把情态动词、助动词等置于句首,如 do .

She likes football. so do i.

常见的倒装:not until ,nor , so , 以及副词状语开头的句子都用倒装。

虚拟语气中的倒装句如果虚拟语气的条件从句谓语动词中含有were, had, could, should,有时可将if省去,而将条件从句的主语置于were, had, should, could 之后。

Had you invited us, we would have come to your party.

Were I you, I would do more practice after class.

Could she lend us a helping hand, she would do so.

TAG: 结构