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2019年高考英语大纲词汇表 全国高考大纲词汇表英语

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2019年高考英语大纲词汇表 全国高考大纲词汇表英语

英语常考词汇

广东高考英语补充词汇用法详解

  

【根据广东省高考英语考试大纲补充词汇表编写,每个单词均给出了国标音标、常用词义、典型例句、常用短语,其中有的重要词汇还给出了考点说明、用法辨析等】

 

 

A

 

accord[E5kC:d] n.1.一致,符合:The two sides are completely in accord on this matter. 双方在这个问题上意见完全一致。 2.(尤指国与国之间的)正式协议,条约:an accord between countries 国与国之间的条约 vt.授予,赠与,给与:We accorded him a hearty welcome.= We accorded a hearty welcome to him. 我们给与他热烈的欢迎。

activity[Ak5tIvItI] n.1.[C]活动:I have a lot of activities which take up my time. 我从事很多活动,时间都被填满了。2.[U]活力;活动性:The house has been full of activity all day. 房子里整天都很热闹。

【用法】侧重指一种繁忙或充满活力的状态时,不可数;侧重指具体所做的事情,如工作、娱乐、消遣等,则可数,且通常用复数。

admission[Ed5mIF(E)n] n.1.[U]准许进入;准许加入:No admission. 禁止入内。 / Admission to this school is for boys only. 这所学校只接受男生入学。 2.[U]入场费;会费:Admission to the concert is$20. 这场音乐会入场费是20美元。

adult[5AdQlt] adj. 成年的;已成人的:an adult man (woman) 成年男子(女子) / adult (basic) education 成人(基础)教育 n.[C]成年人:These films are suitable for adults only. 这些电影只适宜成人观看。

advertisement[Ed5v\:tIsmEnt] n. [C,U] 广告,宣传:the advertisement page 广告专页 / A lot of people replied to our advertisement. 有许多人对我们的广告作出了反应。

【说明】1.advertisement也可略作advert或ad:ads for selling cars 销售汽车的广告2.advertisement 是可数名词,相应的不可数名词用advertising。3.名词advertisement与动词advertise的重音位置不同,不要读错。

alike[E5laIk] adj.相似的,相同的:The two sisters are very alike. 两姐妹非常相像。 / They were all dressed alike in white dresses. 他们都是一样的白色装束。 adv. 同样地;照样地

【说明】许多以 a- 开头的表语形容词(如asleep, awake, alone等)习惯上不受very修饰,但alike是例外,它不仅可受much, very much的修饰,也可受very的修饰(类似地还有very afraid, very ashamed, very alert等)。

amount[E5maJnt] n.1.[C]数量,数额:This school aims to balance the amount of time spent on arts and science subjects. 这所学校在时间安排上努力做到文理并重。 / Equal amounts of flour and sugar should be added to the mixture. 应在混合物中加入等量的面粉和糖。 2.[C]总额,总数:Can you really afford this amount? 你真付得起这个总数吗? vi.1.总计,合计:Sales up to and including last month amounted to £10 000. 销售额至上月底为止达10 000英镑。 2.(在意义、价值等方面)接近,等于:This same thing, happening in wartime, would amount to disaster. 同样的事,如发生在战时,就会酿成大祸。

【用法】a great [large] amount of后通常接不可数名词,用作主语,谓语的数取决于amount的数:A large amount of money was spent on the bridge.=Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge. 在这座桥上花了大量资金。但在现代英语中(尤其在美国英语中),有时其后也可接复数可数名词(尤指大宗货物时):The shopkeeper had a large amount of oranges in his storeroom. 店主在货仓里存有大量橙子。

ancient[5eInFEnt] adj.1. 古代的,古老的:ancient Rome 古罗马2. (口语)过时的:my ancient car 我的老爷车

announcement[E5naJnsmEnt] n.[C,U] 通告,通知:broadcast an announcement 广播一则通告 / The announcement took the students by surprise. 这一通知使学生们大吃一惊。

【说明】表示宣布的动作,通常用单数;表示通知或通告等宣布的内容,为可数名词。

anyway[5enIweI] adv. 不管怎样,反正:Get the job done anyway you can. 不管以何种方式都得完成这项工作。

apology[E5pRlEdVI] n. 1.[C]道歉;歉意:I must make an apology to your aunt for forgetting her birthday. 我把你婶婶的生日给忘了,必须向她道歉。2.[C]辩解,辩护:an apology for innocence 为无罪作辩护

【用法】1.在现代英语中主要用作可数名词,只在少数表达中用作不可数名词(尤其见于…of apology这一结构):a letter of apology 道歉信 / a wordy expression of apology 拖泥带水的道歉 / He left without a word of apology. 他连一句道歉的话都没说就离开了。2.有时用复数形式,但并不表示多次道歉的意思:I made my apologies to my host and left early. 我向主人道过歉后提早离去。

原文见: http://www.nmet168.com/Article/200711/492.html

英语大纲词汇3400有音频

1.prefer+名词

——Would you likemeat or fish?

——I'd prefer meat,please.

2.prefer+动名词

Do you prefercooling for yourself or eating in a restaurant?自己做饭还是喜欢下馆子?

—Do you likeswimming?你喜欢游泳吗?

—Yes, but I prefersailing.喜欢,但我更喜欢驾驶帆船。

3.prefer+不定式(更喜欢做某事)

Do you prefer tocook for yourself, or to eat in a restaurant?

I prefer to spendthe weekend at home.我喜欢在家里度周末。

I would prefer tostay at home tonight.

She prefers to bealone.

4.Prefer sb. to dosth.(宁愿某人做…………)

Their fatherprefers them to be home early.他们的父亲宁愿他们早点回家。

I thought youwould prefer me not to knock.

5.prefer A to B(相对B而言更喜欢A)

在本句型中,A与B是平行结构,可以是名词,也可以都是动名词。例如:

I prefer dogs tocats.在狗与猫之间我更喜欢狗。

Most people prefertrains to buses.

大多数人愿意坐火车而不愿坐汽车。

I prefer writing aterm paper to taking an examination.

我宁愿写一篇学期论文也不愿参加考试。

I prefer stayingat home to going out.

我觉得在家里比出去好。

Thousands ofchildren nowadays prefer doing their homework to a background of pop-music todoing it in a quiet room.成千上万的孩子如今一边听流行音乐一边做作业,也不愿在安安静静的房间里做。

She has alwayspreferred marking her own clothes rather than buying them in the shops.她向来喜欢自己做衣服,而不到商店里去买衣服。

6.Prefer+不定式+rather than+(省略to)不定式(宁愿………….而不愿…………)

1)本句型中,第一个不定式前面要加to,第二个不定式前面以不加to居多。例如: He prefers to dierather than become traitor.他宁死也不做叛徒。Rather than become traitor , he prefers todie .

Older people oftenfear change. They know what they can do best. They prefer to repeat theirsuccesses rather than risk failure.年纪大的人常常怕变化。他们知道什么最拿手,宁愿把自己成功的经验再如法炮制也不愿冒失败的危险。

She preferred tosew rather than to knit.她喜欢缝纫而不喜欢编织。

2)rather than也可以置于句首:

Rather than buy acar of his own, he prefers to rent one.

3)than后也可用动名词:

I prefer to stayat home rather than go/going to see a film.我觉得与其去看电影倒不如待在家里。

I would prefer tospend the weekend at home rather than drive/driving all the way to yourmother's.我觉得与其开车跑那么远的路到你母亲那里度周末,倒不如在家里过更好些。

4)prefer…ratherthan中的rather也可以移到第一个不定式之前(preferrather…than),这种用法多见于书面语。例如:He preferred rather to take the whole blamehimself than to allow it to fall on the innocent. 他宁可自己承担全部责任而不愿让无辜的人受到连累。

5)prefer to do Arather than do B意义相同,试比较:Joe prefers skating to skiing.

Joe prefer toskate rather than ski.

Bill preferredplaying soccer to swimming.

Bill preferred toplay soccer rather than swim.

He preferredrating a car to having one of his own.

He prefers to renta car rather than to have one of his own.他宁愿租车也不愿买车。

6)用prefer…rather than代替prefer…to连接名词的形式偶尔也可见到。如:Mr.Brunner prefers chemistry rather than physics.

有人认为两者的区别是:prefer…to表示一般的倾向,prefer…ratherthan则表示在某种具体场合的选择。如:Whatshall we have to drink,port or sherry?我们喝什么呢,葡萄酒还是雪利酒?

I should preferport rather than sherry.我宁愿喝葡萄酒而不喝雪利酒。

7)prefer+that从句

Would you preferthat I come on Monday instead of on Tuesday?你宁愿让我星期一来而不是星期二来吗?

Iprefer that someone else should do this.我觉得还是让别人来做这件事比较好。

prefer 作及物动词使用,通常意思是“更喜欢,宁愿”。

1. prefer + 名词/动名词/不定式

例:I prefer some apples. / I preferhaving(to have) some apples. 我更喜欢吃苹果。

2. prefer somebody to do something 宁愿某人做某事

例:My daddy prefers me not to swimin that river because it's too dangerous.

我爸爸宁愿我不要去那条河里游泳因为那太危险了。

3. prefer A to B 在 A 和 B 中更喜欢 A

例:I prefer green tea to coffee. 绿茶和咖啡比较起来我更喜欢绿茶。

I prefercooking myself to eating out. 我宁愿自己做饭也不愿出去吃。

注意:注意这个用法中肯定的是前者,A和B必须在形式上保持一致,即要么都是名词,要么都是动名词。没有使用不定式的用法。

4. prefer to do something rather than ...

这个用法类似于用法3,不过rather than后面可以是不定式、名词、动名词或动词原形。

例:I prefer to stay at home ratherthan go out in the heavy rain.

我宁愿呆在家里也不想冒这么大的雨出去。

注意:这里 rather than 后面可以用 goingout或to go out 都可以。而且rather than 也可以放在句子开头:Rather than go out in the heavyrain, I prefer to stay at home.

5. 宾语从句prefer that

宾语从句中常用虚拟语气。

例:I prefer that we should gathermore information on that issue.

我觉得关于那个事情我们最好收集更多信息。

6. prefer 用法的常用成语及习惯用语

prefer to die rather than surrender 宁死不屈

rather than 用法小结

rather than 是一个并列连词,用法比较复杂,现归纳如下:

1. rather than 与would 连用时,构成“would rather...than...”句式,意思是“宁愿……而不愿……”,表示主观愿望,即在两者之中选择其一。例如:

She'd rather die than lose the children. 她宁愿死也不愿失去孩子们。

2. rather than 不与would连用时,表示客观事实,意为“是……而不是……;与其……不如……”。它连接的并列成分可以是名词、代词、形容词、介词(短语)、动名词、分句、不定式、动词等。现分述如下:

(1) 连接两个名词或代词

He is an explorer rather than a sailor. 与其说他是一个海员,不如说他是一个探险者。

You rather than I are going to go camping. 是你而不是我要去要野营。

注意:rather than 连接两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词应与rather than 前面的名词或代词在人称和数上保持一致。

(2) 连接两个形容词

The sweater she bought was beautiful rather thancheap. 与其说她买的这件羊毛衫便宜不如说它漂亮。

(3) 连接两个介词(短语)或动名词

We will have the meeting in the classroom ratherthan in the great hall. 我们是在教室里开会,不是在大厅里。

She enjoys singing rather than dancing. 她喜欢唱歌,而不喜欢跳舞。

(4) 连接两个分句

We should help him rather than he should help us. 是我们应该帮助他而不是他应该帮助我们。

(5) 连接两个不定式

I decided to write rather than (to) telephone. 我决定写信而不打电话。

注意:rather than 后接不定式时,不定式可以带to,也可以不带to, 如上句。但rather than位于句首时,则只能接不带to 的不定式。如:Rather than allow the vegetables to go bad, he sold them at half price. 他唯恐蔬菜烂掉,把它们以半价卖掉了。

(6) 连接两个动词

He ran rather than walked. 他是跑来的,而不是走来的。

注意:这里rather than 后用了walked,而没有用walk,表示客观事实,而不是主观愿望。如果换成walk,则作“宁愿……而不愿 ……”解。

would rather的用法

一、would rather意思是“宁愿、宁可、更、最好、还是为好”,后接动词原形,常省略为’d rather,表示优先选择的一种方式

其否定形式是would rather not do sth。would rather没有人称和数的变化,所有的人称一律用would rather。

“would rather+动词原形”是英语中常见的一个惯用句式,美国英语中多用had rather。would (had)在此决无“过去”之意,它是一个情态助动词,且无词性、时态变化。

例 Mr Li would rather not listen to rock music. 李先生不愿意听摇滚音乐。

If you’d rather be alone, we’ll all leave here. 如果你宁愿独自呆着,那我们都离开这儿。

He’d rather work in the countryside. 她宁可到农村去工作。

You would rather stay at home and do some readingthis evening. 今晚你最好呆在家中读点书。

二、如果在两者中进行取舍,表示“宁愿……而不愿……,与其……宁可……”的意思时,则可用would rather…than…或would…rather than…的句型

例 I would rather watch TV at home than go to the cinema. 我宁可在家看电视而不愿去看电影。

The children would walk there rather than take abus. 孩子们宁愿步行去那里而不愿乘公共汽车。

请注意 1) would rather…than…/would…rather than…也可以颠倒为:rather than…would…。Would(rather)和than后都接不带to的动词不定式,若选用的动词相同,那么than 后的动词可以省略。

例 I would rather have noodles than rice. 我宁愿吃面条也不吃米饭。

He would rather drink wine than beer.他喜欢喝红葡萄酒而不喜欢喝啤酒。

Rather than work in such bad condition, he wouldgive up. 与其在这样差的条件下工作,他宁愿放弃。

2)使用would rather…than…句型时要注意“平行结构”,即在than 的前后要用两个同类的词或词组,如两个名词、两个不定式、两个介词短语等。

例 I would rather go to work by bike than by bus. 我宁愿骑自行车也不愿乘公共汽车去上班。

I would rather talk with his mother than with hisfather. 我宁愿和他妈说话而不愿和他爸说话。

三、在疑问句式中,would rather 与would rather…than…中的would要放在主语之前

例 Would you rather stay here or go home? 你愿意呆在这里,还是回家?

Which would you rather have, apples or bananas? 你喜欢吃苹果还是香蕉?

Would you rather read a novel than read a poem?你宁愿看小说而不愿朗读诗歌吗?

四、would rather+从句,是一个常用的虚拟语气句型 Would rather+从句,谓语一般用过去时来表示现在或将来。其意为“宁愿……,还是…… 好些”“一个人宁愿另一个人做某事”。引导从句的that常省略。在谈到过去的动作时,谓语则用过去完成时。

例 John wants to see me today. I would rather he cameto tomorrow than today. 约翰今天想去看我。我宁愿他明天来看我而不是今天。(句中came不是表示过去而是表示将来)

We’d rather he paid us the money tomorrow. 我们宁愿他明天付给我们那笔钱。

Don’t come tomorrow. I’d rather you came nextweekend. 明天别来。我希望你下周末来。

请注意 1)如果谈到过去的动作,也就是表示过去已经发生的事情在选择上不恰当。此时,主句一般为I had rather ,其(that)从句则用过去完成时。例 Would rather you had not done that. 我真希望你没有做那件事。

2)如果只涉及主语本人而不涉及另一个人,则would rather之后不接that从句而接have done结构。

例 I would rather have gone to the theatre thanstayed home night. 我真希望昨天晚上去看了戏而不是呆在家里。 He would rather be poor thanhave got money by dishonest methods.他宁可穷也不愿意用不诚实的手段获取金钱。

Henry would rather that his girlfriend worked inthe same department as he does.亨利希望他的女朋友和他在一个部门工作。

五、would rather/sooner和prefer/would prefer的区别 would rather和would sooner之间一般没有区别,但经常接触到的是would rather。

例Tom would rather/sooner read than talk.汤姆宁可读书而不愿谈天。 Tom prefers reading to talking.汤姆喜欢读书而不喜欢谈天。

请注意 1)would rather后跟不带to的不定式+than+不带 to的不定式,而prefer后跟动名词+to+动名词。有时prefer后面也可跟名词,而在would rather之后要求只带动词原形。

例 He prefers wine to beer.= He would rather drink wine than beer.他喜欢喝红葡萄酒而不喜欢喝啤酒。

I prefer tennis to golf.= I’d rather play tennis than golf.我喜欢打网球而不喜欢打高尔夫球。 2)某些 prefer+名词的情况不能用 would rather完全确切地表达出来:He prefers dogs to cats.(他喜欢狗而不喜欢猫。)和 He would rather have dogsthan cats.(他宁可养狗而不愿养猫。)很明显,这两句的意思并不完全相同。

3) would rather+不带to的不定式有时可代替 would prefer+带 to的不定式。

例 I’d rather fly than go by sea.=I’d prefer to fly.我宁愿乘飞机也不愿乘船。

这两个结构后面带名词时情况也一样:

例 —Would you like some gin?

—I’d prefer a coffee.=I’d rather have coffee thangin.

—您想喝点杜松子酒吗?

—我想喝点咖啡。/我想喝点咖啡,不想喝杜松子酒。

4)would rather/sooner和would prefer后面都可跟完成式,但后者带to。

例 We went by sea but I’d rather have gone by air=I’dprefer to have gone by air.我们是乘船去的,可我本想乘飞机去。(我愿意乘飞机去,可我的愿望未能实现。)这和would like+不定式的完成式有点相似,would like+带to 的不定式的完成式也表示未能实现的愿望。

高中英语重点词汇

高中英语重点词汇的话对于学习高中英语来说是非常有用的。我们都知道英语无非就是英语为母语的国家里面的那些人的语文,所以词汇就是相当于我们汉语里面的字和词了。如果一个学习汉语的人连最基本的汉字都不认识,那么就不可能去深入地接触和了解汉语。

从这个方面来说,英语词汇的重要性是不言而喻的了。单词的记忆比较枯燥无味,但是一想到它们的重要性,还是要咬牙切齿地去记忆和掌握了。有许多记忆的方法可以借助一下。

不知楼主是想要分享高中英语词汇还是想要求取,无论哪种都不是一件难事,也不是一件坏事。学习中需要分享更需要到处求学,百利无一害。

TAG: 词汇表