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八年级上册英语句型总结 八年级上册英语一单元知识点总结

JACQUELYN

目录

八年级上册英语句型总结 八年级上册英语一单元知识点总结

八年级上英语语法总结全部谁知道?

八年级上册学的都比较简单,形容词和副词的比较级和最高级,句子成分,类型,简单句的五种基本句型,宾语从句,各种时态包括一般现在时,现在进行时,一般过去时,一般将来时,情态动词和动词不定式等……具体内容如下——

一、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级

1) 单音节形容词的比较级和最高级形式是在词尾加 -er 和 -est 构成。

great (原级) greater(比较级) greatest(最高级)

2) 以 -e 结尾的单音节形容词的比较级和最高级是在词尾加 -r 和 -st 构成。

wide (原级) wider (比较级) widest (最高级)

3)少数以-y, -er, -ow, -ble结尾的双音节形容词的比较级和最高级是在词尾加 -er 和 -est 构成。

clever(原级) cleverer(比较级) cleverest(最高级)

4) 以 -y 结尾,但 -y 前是辅音字母的形容词的比较级和最高级是把 -y 去掉,加上 -ier 和-est 构成.

happy (原形) happier (比较级) happiest (最高级)

5) 以一个辅音字母结尾其前面的元音字母发短元音的形容词的比较级和最高级是双写该辅音字母然后再加 -er和-est。

big (原级) bigger (比较级) biggest (最高级)

6) 双音节和多音节形容词的比较级和最高级需用more 和 most 加在形容词前面来构成。

beautiful (原级)? difficult (原级)

more beautiful (比较级) more difficult (比较级)

most beautiful (最高级) most difficult (最高级)

不规则变化

原级 比较级 最高级

good better best

many more most

much more most

bad worse worst

little less least

ill worse worst

far farther(further) farthest(furthest)

deep deeper deepest

tall taller tallest

形容词比较级的用法:

形容词的比较级用于两个人或事物的比较,其结构形式如下:

主语+谓语(系动词)+ 形容词比较级+than+ 对比成分。 也就是, 含有形容词比较级的主句+than+从句。注意从句常常省去意义上和主句相同的部分, 而只剩下对比的成分。

形容词最高级的用法:

形容词最高级用于两个以上的人和物进行比较, 其结构形式为:

主语+谓语(系动词)+the+形容词最高级+名词+表示范围的短语或从句。

二、句子成分

1、主语

主语表示句子主要说明的人或事物,一般由名词,代词,数词,不定式等充当。

2、谓语

谓语说明主语的动作,状态或特征。

一般可分为两类:

1),简单谓语

由动词(或短语动词)构成。

可以有不同的时态,语态和语气。

2),复合谓语:情态动词+不定式

3、表语

4、宾语

宾语表示动作行为的对象,跟在及物动词之后,能作宾语的有名词,代词,数词,动词不定式等。

有些及物动词可以带两个宾语,往往一个指人,一个指物,指人的叫间接宾语,指物的叫直接宾语。

有些及物动词的宾语后面还需要有一个补足语,意思才完整,宾语和它的补足语构成复合宾语。

5、定语

在句中修饰名词或代词的成分叫定语。

用作定语的主要是形容词,代词,数词,名词,副词,动词不定式,介词短语等。形容词,代词,数词,名词等作定语时,通常放在被修饰的词前面。

但副词,动词不定式,介词短语等作定语时,则放在被修饰的词之后。

6、状语

修饰动词,形容词,副词以及全句的句子成分,叫做状语。用作状语的通常是副词,介词短语,不定式和从句等。状语一般放在被修饰的词之后或放在句尾。副词作状语时可放在被修饰的词前或句首。

三、句子类型:

1、简单句的基本形式是由一个主语加一个谓语构成。

2、复合句(Complex Sentence)由一个主句(Principal Clause)和一个或一个以上的从句(Subordinate Clause)构成。

3、两个或两个以上的简单句用并列连词连在一起构成的句子,叫做并列句,其基本结构是“简单句+并列连词+简单句”。

四、简单句的五种基本句型

基本句型一: S V (主+谓)

基本句型二: S V P (主+谓+表)

基本句型三: S V O (主+谓+宾)

基本句型四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)

基本句型五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)

五、宾语从句

在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句.宾语从句分为三类:动词的宾语从句,介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句.

1. 由that引导的宾语从句。That只有语法作用,没有实在的意义,在口语

和非正式文体中可以省略。

2. 由连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which和连接副词when, where, why, how引导的宾语从句。这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成分。if或whether引导的宾语从句。If和whether在句中的意思是“是否”。

初二上册学的宾从就是这些。

六、时态:

一. 一般现在时: (1)表示现在的状态, 例如:He’s twelve. (2)表示经常性的或习惯性的动作,例如:I go to school every day. (3)表示主语具备的性格和能力, 例如:She likes apple.常与often, usually, sometimes, always, every day等表示经常性的或习惯性的时间状语连用.

1. 肯定句结构:

(1) 行为动词:

a. 第一、二人称,复数人称: They/We/You+动词原形... 例如:They go to school every day.

b.第三人称单数: He/She/It+动词-s/es… 例如:Lily often likes singing.

(2)系动词(be): I am... They/We/You are… He/She/It is…

2.否定句结构:

(1) 行为动词:

a. 第一、二人称,复数人称: They/We/You+don’t+动词原形... 例如:They don’t go to school every day.

b.第三人称单数:He/She/It+doesn’t +动词原形… 例如:Lily doesn’t like singing.

(2)系动词(be): 在is/am/are后加not 例如:I am not a worker.

3. 一般疑问句结构:

a. 第一、二人称,复数人称: Do+they/we/you+动词原形...

例如:Do they go to school every day? (Yes, they do. No, they don’t.)

b.第三人称单数: Does +he/she/iIt+动词原形…

例如: Does Lily often like singing? (Yes, she does. No, she doesn’t.)

(2)系动词(be):把is/am/are提在主语前.

例如:Are you a worker? (Yes, I am. No, I’m not.)

二.现在进行时: 表示现在正在进行的动作或发生的事情.常与now, look…, listen…等表示现在状态的时间状语连用.

1.肯定句结构: 主语+is/am/are+动词-ing…

例如: The boys are playing football now.

2.否定句结构: 在is/am/are后加not

例如: The boys aren’t playing football now.

3. 一般疑问句结构: 把is/am/are提在主语前.

例如: Are the boys playing football now? (Yes, they are. No, they aren’t.)

三.一般过去时:表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态.常与yesterday…, last…, …ago, in1990等表示过去状态的时间状语连用.

1. 肯定句结构:

(1) 行为动词: 主语+动词的过去式…

例如: The twins went to school two hours ago.

(2) 系动词(be): I/ He/She/It+was… They/We/You+were…

例如: I was at home last night.

2.否定句结构:

(1) 行为动词: 主语+didn’t+动词原形…

例如: The twins didn’t go to school two hours ago.

(2)系动词(be): 在was/were后加not

例如: I wasn’t at home last night.

3. 一般疑问句结构:

(1) 行为动词: Did+主语+动词原形…?

例如: Did the twins go to school two hours ago?

(Yes, they did. No, they didn’t.)

(2)系动词(be): 把was/were提在主语前.

例如: Were you at home last night? (Yes, I was. No, I was’t.)

四.一般将来时: 表示将来某时将要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经常或反复发生的动作.常与tomorrow…, next…等表示将来状态的时间状语连用.

1. 肯定句结构:

(1)用于书面语: 主语+will+动词…

例如: We will come to see you tomorrow

(2)用于口语: 主语+am/is/are going to+动词…

例如: Tom is going to see his uncle next Sunday.

2.否定句结构:

(1)用于书面语: 在will后加not

例如: We won’t come to see you tomorrow. (will not=won’t)

(2)用于口语: 在is/am/are后加not.

例如: Tom isn’ going to see his uncle next Sunday.

3. 一般疑问句结构:

(1)用于书面语: 把will提在主语前.

例如: Will you come to see you tomorrow? (Yes, we will. No, we won’t.)

(2)用于口语: 把is/am/are提在主语前.

例如: Is Tom going to see his uncle next Sunday?

(Yes, he is. No, he isn’t.)

五.情态动词: can(能,会), may(可以,可能,也许), must(必须,一定,应该)

have to(必须,不得不)

1. 肯定句结构: 主语+can/may/must+动词…

例如: I must go now.

2.否定句结构: 在can/may/must后加not. 例如: I mustn’t go now.

3. 一般疑问句结构: 把can/may/must提在主语前.

Must you go now? (Yes, I must. No, I needn’t.)

May I open the window? (Yes, you may. No, you needn’t.)

六.had better+动词原形,表示“最好干……”,变否定句时在had better后加not.

例如:You had better catch a bus.

You’d better not catch a bus. (You had= You’d )

七.动词不定式:want /forget /remember /would like /go + to + 动词原形…

例如: I want to get back my book..

Lucy went to see his mother last night.

九.特殊疑问句的变换:对划线部分提问时,将划线部分去掉,剩下部分变一般疑问句语序。(对主语提问例外)

例如: My name is Lily. What’s your name?

The river is 500 kilometres. Hong long is the river?

同学,这可是我结合课本与网络“呕心沥血”总结出来的,希望对你有所帮助,如果还不行,建议到人教网把电子课本翻到后面也还有。

八年级上册英语12个单元的语法,词组,句型总结。

八年级英语上册重点句型复习归纳

      1. How often do you exercise? I exercise twice a week.

      2. How often does he go shopping? He goes shopping once a month.

      3. What do you usually do on weekends? I often go to the movies.

      4. What does she usually do on weekends? She sometimes go hiking.

      5. I try to eat a lot of vegetables; I think it\'s good for my health.

      6. What\'s the matter? I have a cold. I\' sorry to hear that.

      7. I\'m not feeling well; I hope you feel better soon.

      8. She has a toothache, she should see a dentist.

      9. It\'s important to eat a balanced diet.

      10. Everyone gets tired sometimes.

      11. What are you doing for vacation? I\'m babysitting my sister.

      12. When are you going? I\'m going on the 12th.

      13. I\'m going to Tibet for a week. ------ Have a good time.

      14. How long are you staying? For about three weeks.

      14. Who are you going with? I\'m going with my friends.

      15. How\'s the weather? = what\'s the weather like? It\'s sunny today.

      16. This time I want to do something different.

      17. He thought about going to Greens or Spain. But decide on Canada.

      18. He plans to have a very relaxing vacation.

      19. Can I ask you some question about your vacation? Yes, sure.

      20. She\'s leaving for Hong Kong on Tuesday.

      21. How do you get to school? I get to school by subway. = I take the subway to school.

      22. How long does it take? It takes about forty minutes.

      23. How far do you live from school? I live ten miles from school

      24. Can you come to my birthday party on Friday? Yes, sure, Sorry, I can\'t.

      25. I\'m more outgoing than my sister.

      26. My friend is the same as me.

      27. Liu Ying isn\'t as good at sports as her sister.

      28. She\'s a little more popular than me.

      29. We are both quiet. We both have black eyes and black hair. We both enjoy going to parties.

      30. He is good at school work; She is good at playing basketball.

      31. I think a good friend can make me laugh.

      32. I like to have friends who are like me. I like to have friends who are different from me.

      33. How do you make a banana smoothie? Peel three bananas, cut up the bananas, put the bananas and the yogurt into the blender, pour the milk into the blender, turn on the blender, drink the smoothie.

      34. How many tomatoes do we need? We need two tomatoes.

      35. How much cinnamon do we need? We need two teaspoons of cinnamon.

      36. Finally mix it all up.

      37. Put some relish on a slice of bread.

      38. Here\'s a recipe for a great turkey sandwich.

      39. How was your school trip? It was really boring.

      40. Did you go to the zoo? No. I didn\'t. I went to aquarium.

      41. Were there any sharks? No, there weren\'t. but there were some really smart seals.

      42. Did Tina buy a souvenir? No, she didn\'t, her friend Grace bought a souvenir.

      43. Tina met a famous actor.

      45. Tina got Jack Denis\'s autograph.

      46. Class 9 had a great time on the school trip.

      47. How was your day off? It was really boring.

      48. Did you have fun camping?49. I didn\'t have a very fun day.

      49. Maria won the first prize in yesterday\'s singing competition,

      50. When was he born? He was born in 1973.

      51. Who\'s that? That\'s Deng Yaping, she\'s a great Chinese ping pong player.

      52. How long did Charles Smith hiccup? He hiccupped for 69years and 5 month.

      53. When did he start sneezing? He sneezed in 1922.

      54. You\'re never too young to start doing things.

      55. Mozart started writing music when he was four years old.

      56. Who\'s Shirley Temple? She\'s a movie star.

      57. When did she become a movie star? She became a movie star when she was three years old.

      58. How old were you when you first went to a movie? She first went to a movie when she was three years old.

      59. She started ice skating when she was four.

      60. I saw her play when I was eight. She toured the US when she was fourteen.

      61. He started to learn the piano when he was seven. He began to learn the accordion at the age of four.

      62. What are you going to be when you grow up? I am going to be a computer programmer.

      63. How are you going to do that? I\'m going to study computer science

      64. I\'m going to move somewhere interesting. I\'m going to find a part-time job. I\'m going to study French at the same time.

      65. I\'m going to travel all over the world. I\'m going to somewhere quiet and beautiful.

      66. Could you please clean your room? Yes, sure.

      67. Could you take out the trash? Yes, I can/ No, I can\'t.

      68. I hate to do chores. I hate doing the dishes, it\'s so boring.

      69. Thanks a lot for taking care of my dog?

      70. Don\'t forget to clean his bed.

      71. What\'s the best radio station? What\'s the best movie theater? It\'s the cheapest, it has the most comfortable seats.

      72. Who\'s the best performer? Eliza was the best performer.

      73. Last week\'s talent show was a great success.

      75. What did you learn in school today? I learned English, Chinese and math

初二上册人教版英语语法。句型总结|

初二英语语法总结

1) leave的用法

1.“leave+地点”表示“离开某地”。例如:

When did you leave Shanghai?

你什么时候离开上海的?

2.“leave for+地点”表示“动身去某地”。例如:

Next Friday, Alice is leaving for London.

下周五,爱丽斯要去伦敦了。

3.“leave+地点+for+地点”表示“离开某地去某地”。例如:

Why are you leaving Shanghai for Beijing?

你为什么要离开上海去北京?

2) 情态动词should“应该”学会使用

should作为情态动词用,常常表示意外、惊奇、不能理解等,有“竟会”的意思,例如:

How should I know? 我怎么知道?

Why should you be so late today? 你今天为什么来得这么晚?

should有时表示应当做或发生的事,例如:

We should help each other.我们应当互相帮助。

我们在使用时要注意以下几点:

1. 用于表示“应该”或“不应该”的概念。此时常指长辈教导或责备晚辈。例如:

You should be here with clean hands. 你应该把手洗干净了再来。

2. 用于提出意见劝导别人。例如:

You should go to the doctor if you feel ill. 如果你感觉不舒服,你最好去看医生。

3. 用于表示可能性。should的这一用法是考试中常常出现的考点之一。例如:

We should arrive by supper time. 我们在晚饭前就能到了。

She should be here any moment. 她随时都可能来。

3) What...? 与 Which...?

1. what 与 which 都是疑问代词,都可以指人或事物,但是what仅用来询问职业。如:

What is your father? 你父亲是干什么的?

该句相当于:

What does your father do?

What is your father's job?

Which 指代的是特定范围内的某一个人。如:

---Which is Peter? 哪个是皮特?

---The boy behind Mary. 玛丽背后的那个男孩。

2. What...?是泛指,所指的事物没有范围的限制;而 Which...?是特指,所指的事物有范围的限制。如:

What color do you like best? (所有颜色)

你最喜爱什么颜色?

Which color do you like best, blue, green or yellow? (有特定的范围)

你最喜爱哪一种颜色?

3. what 与 which 后都可以接单、复数名词和不可数名词。如:

Which pictures are from China?

哪些图片来自中国?

4) 频度副词的位置

1.常见的频度副词有以下这些:

always(总是,一直) usually(通常) often(常常,经常) sometimes(有时候) never(从不)

2.频度副词的位置:

a.放在连系动词、助动词或情态动词后面。如:

David is often arrives late for school. 大卫上学经常迟到。

b.放在行为动词前。如:

We usually go to school at 7:10 every day. 我们每天经常在7:10去上学。

c.有些频度副词可放在句首或句尾,用来表示强调。如:

Sometimes I walk home, sometime I rides a bike. 有时我步行回家,有时我骑自行车。

3.never放在句首时,主语、谓语动词要倒装。如:

Never have I been there.

5) every day 与 everyday

1. every day 作状语,译为“每一天”。如:

We go to school at 7:10 every day. 我们每天7:10去上学。

I decide to read English every day. 我决定每天读英语。

2. everyday 作定语,译为“日常的”。

She watches everyday English on TV after dinner. 她晚饭后在电视上看日常英语。

What's your everyday activity? 你的日常活动是什么?

6) 什么是助动词

1.协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词(Auxiliary Verb)。被协助的动词称作主要动词(Main Verb)。

助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用,例如:

He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。

(doesn't是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义)

2.助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:

a. 表示时态,例如:

He is singing. 他在唱歌。

He has got married. 他已结婚。

b. 表示语态,例如:

He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。

c. 构成疑问句,例如:

Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?

Did you study English before you came here?你来这儿之前学过英语吗?

d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句,例如:

I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。

e. 加强语气,例如:

Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。

He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。

3.最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would

7) forget doing/to do与remember doing/to do

1.forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做)

forget doing 忘记做过某事。 (已做)

The light in the office is still on. He forgot to turn it off.

办公室的灯还在亮着,它忘记关了。(没有做关灯的动作)

He forgot turning the light off.

他忘记他已经关了灯了。 ( 已做过关灯的动作)

Don't forget to come tomorrow.

别忘了明天来。 (to come动作未做)

典型例题

---- The light in the office is still on.

---- Oh,I forgot___.

A. turning it off B. turn it off

C. to turn it off D. having turned it off

答案:C。由the light is still on 可知灯亮着,即关灯的动作没有发生,因此用forget to do sth.而forget doing sth 表示灯已经关上了,而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。

2.remember to do 记得去做某事 (未做)

remember doing 记得做过某事 (已做)

Remember to go to the post office after school. 记着放学后去趟邮局。

Don't you remember seeing the man before? 你不记得以前见过那个人吗?

8) It's for sb.和 It's of sb.

1.for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible等:

It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。

2.of sb 的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。

It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。

3.for 与of 的辨别方法:

用介词后面的代词作主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果道理上通顺用of,不通则用for。如:

You are nice. (通顺,所以应用of)。

He is hard. (人是困难的,不通,因此应用for。)

9) 对两个句子的提问

新目标英语在命题中有将对句子划线提问这一题型取消的趋势,现在采取的作法是对一个句子进行自由提问。例如:

句子:The boy in blue has three pens.

提问:1.Who has three pens?

2.Which boy has three pens?

3.What does the boy in blue have?

4.How many pens does the boy in blue have?

很显然,学生多了更多的回答角度,也体现了考试的灵活性。再如:

句子:He usually goes to the park with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday.

提问:1.Who usually goes to the park with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday?

2.Where does he usually go with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday?

3.What does he usually do with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday?

4.With whom does he usually go to the park at 8:00 on Sunday?

5.What time does he usually go to the park with his friends on Sunday?

6.When does he usually go to the park with his friends?

10) so、such与不定冠词的使用

1.so与不定冠词a、an连用,结构为“so+形容词+a/an+名词”。如:

He is so funny a boy.

Jim has so big a house.

2.such与不定冠词a、an连用,结构为“such+a/an+形容词+名词”。如:

It is such a nice day.

That was such an interesting story.

11) 使用-ing分词的几种情况

1.在进行时态中。如:

He is watching TV in the room.

They were dancing at nine o'clock last night.

2.在there be结构中。如:

There is a boy swimming in the river.

3.在have fun/problems结构中。如:

We have fun learning English this term.

They had problems getting to the top of the mountain.

4.在介词后面。如:

Thanks for helping me.

Are you good at playing basketball.

TAG: 句型